Add files you want to commit: git add {file or folder name}. You can also add all by using git add ., but this is not recommended, as you don't want to add all unless you are POSITIVE it doesn't contain cruft or unwanted changes, which is rarely the case. An easy way to check what has changed in your files since last commit is to use the --patch flag.


Add only portions of a file as 'hunks': git add --patch/-p {file or folder name} (file or folder is optional). This will prompt you with options:

Case Sensitivity

Git by default is not case sensitive when it comes to filenames and will ignore renaming of file structures that are only by case. To change this default behavior, use git config core.ignorecase false. Note that setting this option to false on a case-insensitive file system is generally a bad idea. Doing so will lead to weird errors. For example, renaming a file in a way that only changes letter case will cause git to report spurious conflicts or create duplicate files.

If it is a file or files, you can change their name as normal and then within git via this command: git mv -f filename.txt Filename.txt. This will make it show up in your commit. If it is a directory, you will need to do this with every file within the directory.


Action Command
See all branches git branch
See the remote branches your local repo knows git branch -a
Checkout an existing branch git checkout {name}
Create and name a new branch git branch {name}
Create and checkout a new branch git checkout -b {name}
Create an orphaned branch git checkout --orphan {branch_name}
Push the current branch git push origin HEAD
Rename a branch. Assuming you're currently on the branch you want to rename git branch -m {name}
Delete a fully pushed and merged branch git branch -d {name}
Force delete a local branch git branch -D {name}
Merge another branch into currently checked-out branch git merge {other-branch}

Orphan Branches

Commits usually have one parent, their previous iteration. The root commit (very beginning) of your repo has none, and when you merge commit a fork with another branch or the master branch.

An orphan branch is a new root commit, where:

The first commit made on this new branch will have no parents, and it will be the root of a new history, totally disconnected from all the other branches and commits. In other words, it creates a new root commit and uses it as a starting point for your new branch.

Delete All Merged Branches

To delete all branches that have been merged, start out by pulling from remote to ensure you are using the most up to date info. Then check which branches are merged by running git branch --merged. We will be using egrep to grab these and put them into a macro that will delete each merged branch that doesn't fit within the regex. To ensure a branch that contains a certain keyword does not get deleted, add it to the egrep -v "(^...)" line, with each keyword separated by an OR |.

git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|master|main|dev|staging)" | xargs git branch -d

Cherry Pick

When should I use cherry-pick? The short answer is: as rarely as possible.

For this reason, I have not spent much time learning how to get this to work, as the only experience I have had was one of my colleagues using this and causing hours of work trying to fix the side effects.


A revert allows you to go back to a previous commit, reversing those previous between commit X (HEAD) and commit Y (the selected commit). This will create a reversal commit for each commit to be undone between X and Y. In the case of a single commit to be undone, it will make a single reversal commit.

To revert one or many commits, open your git log and find the commit you want to revert back to. Save this hash. Then enter the following:

$ git revert [-m 1] <commit-hash>

The -m flag is used to revert a merge; to set where the mainline is, which parent you are wanting to revert back to. Most of the time it is 1.

For example, lets say you accidentally committed to the main branch and pushed up. You can revert this with git revert HEAD or git revert {hash}, creating a commit dialog and fixing your mistake through adding to your commit history.


Stashing allows you to temporarily save changes without committing anything.

To stash some changes, use git stash save 'message about stash', or just git stash if you want to leave out the message.

To see what you have stashed, use git stash list to see all stashed code. Then see what is in each stash by using git stash show {index}, and you can see it diffed by using the -p flag.

Stashes can be listed recalled via the indexes shown: git stash apply {index} or git stash pop {index} if you want to remove it from the stashes after being applied.

You can git stash drop {index} individual stashes or git stash clear the entire stash.


If you receive a message like this when trying to push up to your repo:

remote: HTTP Basic: Access denied
fatal: Authentication failed for ''


remote: Invalid username or password.
fatal: Authentication failed for ''

Then you may have revoked or renewed your token and need to reset it. To do so, type this in the terminal:

$ git credential reject

And when you receive a new line, enter in url= followed by the url that showed up previously in the error message. Then use ctrl-c or ctrl-d to quit.


On trying to push again, you will get prompted for authentication and it will work.


Github deprecated standard HTTPS for SSH, so if you continue to get this error, generate a new token and use that token in place of your password.


Handle Windows newlines (CRLF => LF):


Simplify git Call

In your Bash or equivalent rc file, set an alias of g to git. Surprisingly has saved me quite a bit of mistypes and extra key typing.

Use VIM as Editor

Good Commit Hygiene



Last modified: 202110141553