Orphan Branches

Commits usually have one parent, their previous iteration. The root commit (very beginning) of your repo has none, and when you merge commit a fork with another branch or the master branch.

An orphan branch is a new root commit, where:

The first commit made on this new branch will have no parents, and it will be the root of a new history, totally disconnected from all the other branches and commits. In other words, it creates a new root commit and uses it as a starting point for your new branch.

Delete All Merged Branches

To delete all branches that have been merged, start out by pulling from remote to ensure you are using the most up to date info. Then check which branches are merged by running git branch --merged. We will be using egrep to grab these and put them into a macro that will delete each merged branch that doesn't fit within the regex. To ensure a branch that contains a certain keyword does not get deleted, add it to the egrep -v "(^...)" line, with each keyword separated by an OR |.

git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|master|main|dev|staging)" | xargs git branch -d

Cherry Pick

When should I use cherry-pick? The short answer is: as rarely as possible.

Cherry picking


A revert allows you to go back to a previous commit, reversing those previous between commit X (HEAD) and commit Y(the selected commit). This will create a reversal commit for each commit to be undone between X and Y. In the case of a single commit to be undone, it will make a single reversal commit.

To revert one or many commits, open your git log and find the commit you want to revert back to. Save this hash.

The -m flag is used to revert a merge; to set where the mainline is, which parent you are wanting to revert back to. Most of the time it is 1.

$ git revert [-m 1] <commit-hash>


Stashing allows you to temporarily save changes without committing anything.

To stash some changes, use git stash save 'message about stash', or just git stash if you want to leave out the message.

To see what you have stashed, use git stash list to see all stashed code. Then see what is in each stash by using git stash show {index}, and you can see it diffed by using the -p flag.

Stashes can be listed recalled via the indexes shown: git stash apply {index} or git stash pop {index} if you want to remove it from the stashes after being applied.

You can git stash drop {index} individual stashes or git stash clear the entire stash.

Git Aliases


shell> git config --global checkout # now 'git co' is aliased to 'git checkout'
shell> git config alias.p 'push origin HEAD'  # now 'git p' is aliased to 'git push origin HEAD' ONLY for current project
shell> git config --global --unset alias.p # now 'git p' is no longer aliased


Creating a .gitignore file in the root folder of your project will ensure every file that matches a line within the file will be ignored by git.

Global gitignore

You can ignore files globally by adding them to ~/.gitignore_global.

Delete previous files in gitignore

If you add a file to .gitignore after previously committing that file, you may see untracked changes on those files. You have to remove the old files from the git repository to remove that error.


If you receive a message like this when trying to push up to your repo:

remote: HTTP Basic: Access denied
fatal: Authentication failed for ''


remote: Invalid username or password.
fatal: Authentication failed for ''

Then you may have revoked or renewed your token and need to reset it. To do so, type this in the terminal:

$ git credential reject

And when you receive a new line, enter in url= followed by the url that showed up previously in the error message. Then use ctrl-c or ctrl-d to quit.


On trying to push again, you will get prompted for authentication and it will work.




Use VIM as Editor

Good Commit Hygiene



Last modified: 202107171600